Thursday, July 7, 2016



SAN FRANCISCO — There's a good chance that NASA's highly anticipated Europa mission will do much more than just fly by the ocean-harboring Jupiter moon.

NASA has already selected the nine primary science instruments for the Europa (moon) spacecraft, whose core mission involves performing dozens of flybys to gauge the Jovian satellite's life-hosting potential. But the probe should be able to accommodate an additional 550 lbs. (250 kilograms) of payload, and NASA would rather not let that "excess" go to waste.

"There's a variety of things that we can do," Jim Green, the head of NASA's Planetary Science division, said here Tuesday (Dec. 15) during a town hall presentation at the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU). "Perhaps plume probes, perhaps penetrators, or even a small lander." [Europa May Harbor Simple Life-Forms (Video)]

There's no guarantee that any additional instruments or miniprobes will make it onboard the Europa spacecraft. But the smart money may be on one or two ultimately being selected.

"We're pretty hot on doing something," Green told after his presentation.

The 1,900-mile-wide (3,100 kilometers) Europa is regarded as one of the solar system's best bets to host alien life. Though Europa is covered by an ice shell perhaps 50 miles (80 km) thick, the satellite also harbors a huge subsurface ocean that contains more water than all of Earth's seas combined.

This ocean is in contact with Europa's rocky mantle, making possible a range of interesting and complex chemical reactions, researchers say.

The $2 billion Europa mission, which does not have an official name yet, aims to investigate the habitability of the moon and its ocean.

The spacecraft is scheduled to launch in the early to mid-2020s and reach the Jupiter system 8 years later, if a "standard" rocket such as United Launch Alliance's Atlas V serves as the launch vehicle. (Using NASA's in-development Space Launch System megarocket would slash the travel time to 3 years or so, Green said.)

The probe would then perform 45 flybys of Europa over the next 2.5 years or so, studying the satellite with high-resolution cameras, a heat detector, ice-penetrating radar and other scientific gear.

None of the nine already-announced instruments were designed to hunt for signs of life. But it's possible that a small deployable plume probe — which would fly through putative plumes of water vapor near Europa's south pole, which were detected in December 2012 but have yet to be confirmed by follow-up observations — could carry life-detecting gear. So could a penetrator, which would slam into Europa's ice shell at high speeds, or a lander, which would touch down softly.

Europa's rough and rugged terrain — a complex jumble of big ice cliffs and crevasses — would make a soft landing extremely challenging, Green said, and surface work would be tough in the moon's high-radiation environment (though radiation levels aren't uniform across Europa, and analyses suggest that a lander could operate for extended periods in some locales, Green added).

We'll all just have to wait and see if NASA will add these challenges to its Europa to-do list.

NASA Europa Satellite Lander & Submarine science probe landing mission

Over the centuries, Europa, the most luminous of all the Galilean moons, has provided an abundance of mysteries. These culminated in what may have been a literal explosion in December 2012, when a cloud of water vapor was seen 20 miles over its south pole. This eruption was tiny on the cosmic scale, but enormous in its importance to astrobiology.

Notothenioidei is one of 18 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic icefish and sub-Antarctic fish. Notothenioids are distributed mainly throughout the Southern Ocean around the coasts of New Zealand, South America, and Antarctica

Amphipod sand hopper
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies. Amphipods range in size from 1 to 340 millimetres (0.039 to 13 in) and are mostly detritivores or scavengers.

Anglerfishes are fish of the teleost order Lophiiformes.They are bony fish named for their characteristic mode of predation, in which a fleshy growth from the fish's head (the esca or illicium) acts as a lure.

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Mike Wall. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.รข

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    I'm working on a theory for some time in trying to combine science with religion, looking for an answer to the question 
"What is the purpose of life in Creation?  Is it possible for life to be an unintended consequence of our Universe?

Finally due to space,science and exploration throughout the Universe we got everyone to agree with the fact that we are not the only planet with life.  My blog is full of interesting articles about Creation of the Universe with all his laws,  NASA's Missions,  History,   Science,  Physics, Health, Nature, Ancient origins and Culture.