Friday, September 23, 2016

Sigmund Freud, the psychiatrist who scandalized the scientific world.

On 23 September 1939 died Sigmund Freud, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis (b. May 6, 1856).

Sigismund Schlomo Freud was born May 6, 1856 in Freiberg, Moravia, then Habsburg Empire, now Pribor in the Czech Republic. He was the son of Jacob Freud and third wives thereof, Amalia (20 years younger than her husband).

Two stepbrothers's Sigismund, Emmanuel and Philipp, were almost the same age as his mother. This unusual can be an explanation of the interest shown by Freud in the study of family relationships, focused on the Oedipus complex.

In 1859, Freud moved with his family to Leipzig, in Germany and in 1860 in Vienna, where he remained until 1938. In 1877, changed its name to Sigmund Freud. In 1873 he began studies in medical research at the University of Vienna. Since college, Freud did research on the central nervous system, under the direction of Ernst von Brücke, taking his degree in 1881. He worked at the psychiatric clinic of Theodor Meynert in the period from 1882 to 1883, then studied with Charcot, clinic Salpetriere in Paris (1885). In 1886 Martha was married and had six children Bernays.

Sigmund Freud began research on psychoanalysis in the 1880s, at the end of a century in which both Europe and America have experienced reform asylums for people with mental and expressed their interest in psychological states abnormal, particularly for mental illness . Freud was directed to study psychoanalysis after reading articles on Breuer's method of treating hysteria through hypnosis. Freud and Breuer published together '' Studies on hysteria '' in 1895. In the same year, Freud was able to analyze a dream. In the next five years (1895-1900), developed most of the concepts which were then included in the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. 


The term 'psychoanalysis'' was even proposed by Freud in 1896. After divorcing Breuer and after the shock of the father's death, Freud's self-analysis starts in 1897, focusing on their dreams and fantasies, supported by his friend, Wilhelm Fliess.


He was a professor at the University of Vienna. Freud supported theories have generated conflicting reactions until a group of young doctors began to accompany him to Vienna in 1902. He founded here 'Psychological Wednesday Society' ', a weekly meeting between friends, which were discussed the discoveries that became the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1908, and the International Psychoanalytic Society in 1910.

'Interpretation of Dreams' has vexed the medical world


'Interpretation of Dreams'', which Freud considered the most important book, was published in 1899, but has branded 1900 as the date of the first edition, because the author wanted his great discovery to be associated with the beginning a new century. Medical world looked with skepticism this work, so Freud and continued his studies alone, isolated from the rest of researchers. He started working with Dora, one of her patients, and published in 1901, '' Psychopathology of Everyday Life '.

In 1905 he published three essays on the theory of sexuality, relationship to the unconscious and fragments analysis of Dora's case of hysteria. In 1908, he held in Salzburg, the first congress of Freudian psychology. In 1909 he was invited by Stanley Hall to take five courses at Clark University. This visit to the United States and has marked his career, attracting the world's attention on its theories.

In 1912, it was published the first professional journal, 'Imago' '. As the International Psychoanalytic Society was becoming increasingly popular, some members withdrew and formed their own schools of psychology. In 1916, Freud published the first part of 'Introduction to Psychoanalysis'.

Freud learned that suffer from cancer of the jaw in 1923. He spent the next 16 years fighting the disease. Research has not given up, and in 1925 he published five papers - '' the Collected Works'. Received Prize for Literature Goethe (1930) and was elected Honorary Member of the British Royal Society of Medicine in 1935. Threatened by the Nazi occupation, in 1938 he emigrated to England with his family.


Sigmund Freud died in London on September 23, 1939, at the age of 83 years.

Freud and '' sexual development '' of people

Throughout his career, Sigmund Freud published numerous books and papers. While his study focused on sexual behavior he meant by this instincts or desires that cause a certain attitude or belief, whether visible or repressed. Following a biological evolution, Freud establishes a rigid model of what he calls' sexual development ''. For this, Freud proposed the theory of stages of development, age, with clear boundaries. It is not mandatory for an individual to go through all the phases and stages may be some overlap.

The first phase is between 0-2 years. During this period, the child explores the world using the lips and mouth: accept food, milk and tends to lead to mouth any object you can hold in your hand. Later, learn to use your mouth to communicate. The next phase is between 2-4 years and the most controversial. During this period, children discover the sexual differences and learn to control their physiological needs. Thus, the child realizes that his parents can handle, refusing to do what is required.

The period between the ages of 4-6 years is the most important psycho-sexual development of the individual. The key attraction of this stage is that the child feels for opposite-sex parent, the other parent with fear. Freud called this attraction Oedipus complex (boys) and Electra (for girls). These complexes leads to a differentiation of normal masculine feminine personality. Solving complex lies in trying to identify the child with the parent of the same sex, this identification leads to his future sexual orientation.


During the next 6 years and up to puberty, the individual suppresses sexual dimension and focus on other aspects of life. It scholar period, adapting to society, cultural assimilation of information and moral values. This latent stage lasts about 5 or 6 years until puberty, when the individual becomes aware of the sexual dimension. Since puberty, the individual is attracted to the opposite sex and can carry out the instinct of procreation.

Dimensions of personality

Another aspect of Freud's theories is the study of personality. Personality structure has 3 dimensions. Freud split it into id, ego and superego. Only ego is visible, but all three have their own effects on personality. Id is the biological forces. Personality is a constant because it is always present. Man is born with its own id. Id is a very important component of personality because it allows us to get what we need when we are born again.


Id is governed by the pleasure principle or concept of hedonism. In other words, he wishes to be immediately fulfill desires without taking into account external reality. For example, when a child should be changed, id cry when a child is cold, warm it hurts something or simply want to be given more attention, id announces these things until the child's needs are satisfied without taking into account that parents sleep, eat or rest. He does not deal only with their own needs.

In the next three years, as the child increasingly interact more with the world around begins to develop the second side of the personality. Freud calls ego and personality is the part that we show the world. The ego is governed by the reality principle or a pragmatic vision on the world. Id's desires are still present, but ego realizes the consequences that would fulfill those desires. Ego grows with experience and understands that other people also have their own needs and desires and selfish and impulsive behavior that can make us very sick. It is the duty to satisfy the ego-id, whilst taking into account the surrounding world.


Around the age of 5 years, is developing the third side of the personality, superego. The superego is the moral aspect of the individual and develops along with the presentation of moral and ethical restrictions, with experience or through social interactions. According to the theory supported by Freud, a powerful superego succeed in inhibiting biological instincts of the id, superego when a weak yield to them. Moreover, the level of guilt in both cases will be higher, respectively lower.

To a normal person, the ego must be the strongest to satisfy needs without upsetting id and superego view of reality from the outside. Above tripartite structure should be dynamic and change with age and experience accumulation. Also, aspects of adult behavior, such as smoking, are related to the different stages of formation of the complex. Complexes or fixed ideas are, according to Freud, a measure of the effort required to pass through stages of development, and a great effort by the child to overcome a certain stage is reflected later in his behavior as an adult.

Interpretation of dreams book


Another important point addressed by Freud is the interpretation of dreams. Freud argues that dream is the guardian of sleep. When we go to bed we try to detach ourselves from reality, negating any external stimulus. During the night, protecting our mind through dreams, both external stimuli, such as noise or light, as well as internal ones such as emotions, fear or dissatisfaction. Freud's study concentrated more on internal stimuli. For a person can experience strong emotions in the dream, negative thoughts or desires hidden prohibited, they must be disguised in some form. Otherwise, who has such a dream becomes extremely agitated and wakes. Therefore, a good interpretation of dreams can lead to unconscious manifestations understanding.


Freud believes that dream is composed of two parts: '' manifest content ', which is manifested on the surface, and' 'the latent'. The first of these two is represented by what we remember when we wake up. Freud suggests that this aspect of the dream has no meaning because it is a disguised representation of the true thoughts that generated the dream. On the other hand, latent content holds true meanings of the dream - thoughts banned or subconscious desires. They appear in the manifest content, but are disguised and can not be recognized. It is very rare that the two sides of the dream overlap. Freud called this dream '' child ''. Freud insists that dreams are a form of fulfillment of desires suppressed. If desire was not satisfied in everyday life, the mind responds to this internal stimulus, turning it into a concrete experience, visually and in order to meet. The result is a peaceful sleep.

Freud's contradictions

Some of the theories proposed by Freud is closely linked to the culture of those times, some are very difficult to prove, others are part of his own personality. But Freud is an excellent observer of human behavior and most of his ideas are found at the base of theories today. However, there are conflicting views on certain aspects of his theories. For example, in terms of the Oedipus complex, psychologists say it is true that some children are attracted to opposite-sex parent and compete with same-sex parent. However, it is also not true that some of these children retain these affections, fears and aspirations in adulthood. 

But most theorists consider these examples exceptions rather than rules. These cases occur in families who do not behave normally parents do not understand and often use the child as a weapon against the other. Also, these cases occur when parents talk to their child, he goes to find things wrong about sex from other children.

Freud brought widespread criticism is that it puts too much emphasis on sexuality. All things, both good and bad, seem to result from the expression or repression of sexual impulses. Many researchers are wondering if there are also other psychological components. Freud later added the death instinct, but it is not so well known. Critics argue that, indeed, society is dominated by this type of item, but this does not mean that sexuality underlies any motives. On the other hand, theorists Freudian claim that the emphasis it puts on elements of sexuality are not based on such an attitude of society, but rather to avoid the subject, especially in social class upper or middle. This is precisely its greatest success: that he managed to expose a subject hidden until then. The only thing that can be criticized is that the generalized too much, without taking into account cultural change.

Another concept is criticized subconscious. Humanists and existentialists argue, on the one hand, that the motivations and problems attributable subconscious are fewer than Freud thought and, secondly, that the subconscious is not as important as he thought. Most psychologists today believe subconscious to be everything we refuse to see or superfluous. Some theorists do not use this term.

Despite all these conflicting opinions, it must be recognized that Freud discovered something extraordinary, so good that have already been incorporated into other theories to the point where it was almost forgotten the underpinning them. First, Freud awakened awareness of two powerful forces each person. When everyone thought that man is entirely rational, Freud demonstrated how much of our behavior is dominated by biological forces. When everyone thought that everyone is responsible for his actions, he demonstrated the impact of society on each of us. Id and superego, psychiatric manifestations of the social and biological element will always be next to each of us, in one form or another.

Secondly, Freud is due to the theory that neurosis is caused by psychological trauma. Although most theorists believe that all theories have the same explanation and it is not necessary to re-experiencing of trauma to go further, it can not be denied that a childhood of abuse, neglect and sadness tends to lead to maturity as lackluster. In the third, Freud introduced the concept of ego.


Also, Freud was the one who developed forms of therapy. '' Discussion with the patient therapy '' is considered currently the most effective in patients with psychological problems. Some of Freud's theories are obviously related to the culture of the time. Others are hard to test. Others may be part of his own experiences and his own personality. But Freud was a keen observer of the human condition and most theories they proposed special relevance today.

Invenit Mundo presents the main meanings of the day September 23:

1800 - He died Friedrich Wöhler, German chemist (b. July 31, 1800 Eschersheim; m. Göttingen), the pioneer of organic chemistry. Urea synthesis was carried out in 1828 in inorganic materials. He discovered several chemical elements.


1846 - The discovery of Neptune by Urbain Jean Joseph Le French astronomer Verrier and British astronomer John Couch Adams

1856 - Karl Krumbacher was born, historian and philologist German foreign honorary member of the Romanian Academy (d. 1909)

1870 - He died French writer Prosper Mérimée (n. 1803)

1884 - Michael Costachescu was born, historian and folklorist Romanian member of the Romanian Academy (d. 1953)

1901 - Jaroslav Seifert was born, poet and publicist Czech Nobel laureate for Literature in 1984 (d. 1986)

1915 - He was born American physicist Clifford Shull (d. 2001)

1926 - He was born American musician John Coltrane (d. 1967)

1930 - He was born American musician Ray Charles (d. 2004)

1970 - A Bourvile André died, actor, one of the most popular performers of the screen French ( "Les Miserables," "The Three Musketeers") (b. July 27, 1917)

1973 - He died Pablo Neruda, Chilean poet, Nobel Laureate for Literature in 1971 ( "Spain in the heart", "Elementary Odes") (b. July 12, 1904)

1973 - Former Argentine President Juan Perón returned to power

2006 - He died British composer Sir Malcolm Arnold, winner of an Oscar for the soundtrack of the movie "The Bridge on the River Kwai"


2006 - Finished in American blues guitarist life Etta Baker (n. 1913)


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