Sunday, June 26, 2016

Top 10 extinct species that will be recreated a genetic























Recipe plamadirii any creature is written in its DNA. For this reason, recently, when geneticists have deciphered the genome almost entirely woolly mammoth, extinct animal long, were made much speculation about the possibility of awakening to life both the ancient creatures, and other extinct species. Walking without a living creature from a DNA sequence that exists only in memory of a computer is currently not possible. But in the near future, someone will certainly try to produce this experiment, predicts Stephan Schuster, a molecular biologist from Pennsylvania State University, member of the project responsible for deciphering the genome of the mammoth. Regarding the possibility of resurrection and other species, in a first step, they will not be targeted only those creatures whose complete DNA sequence will be known. The most important of these are listed in the list below.

Smilodon Fatalis 10 or dagger-toothed tiger

Vanished: about 10,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 60%
Match potential surrogate mother: 60%

This fabulous animal, canines with impressive size of some daggers would definitely be a terrifying sight in our times. They found several specimens of Smilodon surprisingly well preserved in swamps around Los Angeles, but extracting DNA from these remains is more difficult because of tar that are soaked tissues. However, there are few specimens preserved in permafrost, which could represent a more sustainable sampling of genetic material. When will be able to reconfigure the whole genome of Smilodon, African lion, a close relative of it, should prove a good egg donor and a surrogate host acceptable for embryo development.
































9. Arctodus simus were Bear with short snout
Missing: around 11,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 60%
Match potential surrogate mother: 40%

If you were brought back to life this unruly animal would make him pale with envy and fear to run away from even the largest terrestrial carnivores of the planet - the polar bear. Bear with short snout would have been about a third higher than in polar bear standing tall, weighing up to a ton. Or DNA recovery could be possible because there are few specimens preserved in permafrost pretty good. Nearest relative of today this animal is the bear "glasses" in South America. The two species have grabbed her horses evolutionary distinct "only" five million years ago, but unfortunately, only one-tenth the mass bear nosed curt, spectacled bear is unlikely to serve as a good parent -surogat for such an embryo.






























8. Thylacinus cynocephalus Tasmanian Tiger or

Vanished: 1936
DNA preserved: 80%
Match potential surrogate mother: 20%


The last Tasmanian tiger copy of which data are recorded, named Benjamin, died in Hobart Zoo in Tasmania, Australia in 1936. The existence of various preserved tissues less than a century suggests that geneticists should manage to obtain DNA good quality and produce a complete genome sequence of Thylacinus in the near future. When it comes to resurrection, marsupials like Tasmanian tiger might be more easily bred genetically than other mammals. During pregnancy the marsupial is usually only a few weeks and a placenta simple forms only ephemeral around the fetus, meaning that there is a low risk of incompatibility between an embryo and a surrogate mother of another species. For Tasmanian tiger, the surrogate is even controversial proposed Tasmanian devil. After birth, the baby could be increased milk into a "pocket" artificial.
























7. Doedicurus clavicaudatus or Gliptodonul

Missing: approx. 11,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 50%
Match potential surrogate mother: 30%

Armadillo's the size of a car with its tail thorny shape of a bat, was flashing sometime in rural areas of South America today, and some hope this to happen again. Since there gliptodoni frozen, obtaining usable DNA will depend on finding well-preserved remains in a cool and dry caves. Besides, there is a bigger problem: the best species that could play host to an embryo gliptodon learned in training should be more little armadillo "giant" 30 kilograms. But size difference means a reduced chance of keeping the load required during the experiment success.


















6. Coelodonta antiquitatis or woolly rhinoceros

Missing: approx. 10,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 80%
Match potential surrogate mother: 100%

Theoretically, resurrect the woolly rhino appears to have more chance of success. Just as with the mammoth, there are numerous specimens preserved in permafrost, and the availability of hair, horns and hooves is a big plus. These tissues can be cleaned to remove DNA contaminated by bacteria before using enzymes to release an abundant almost pure rhino DNA. This makes it possible publication by geneticists complete genome of the animal's hairy near future. However, although the woolly rhino has close living relatives that could serve as a suitable surrogate hosts all species of rhinos contemporary themselves on the brink of extinction. As long as things remain so, woolly resuscitation is unlikely to become a PRIORITIES




























5. Raphus or cucullatus dodo

Gone: around 1690 AD
DNA preserved: 20%
Match potential surrogate mother: 60%

In 2002, geneticists at Oxford University have obtained permission to dissect best preserved dodo specimen in the world, a leg bone - with feathers and leather - kept under lock and key at the Natural History Museum of the University. "This produced fragments of dodo mitochondrial DNA but nothing more," explains Beth Shapiro, a specialist in ancient DNA, a professor at Pennsylvania State University. Since then, no other specimen has not offered even a breath of DNA that animal, but there is still hope that someday there will be more genetic material. If a trace of DNA arises and a genome sequence can be produced from it, they would resort to using pigeons to help revive their famous cousin in our times.
























4. Lazy Megatherium americanum or giant

Missing: approx. 8,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 40%
Match potential surrogate mother: 30%

Stand two feet, this giant measure up to six meters in height, and its weight is estimated today that would have been about four tons. Extinction relatively recent discovery has allowed some lazy specimens with hair, an excellent source of DNA. So we are about to see recently published genome giant lazy? "Absolutely," says Hendrik Poinar at MacMaster University in Canada, who extracted DNA from fossilized feces giant sloth from 30,000 years ago. The difficulty any intention of resurrection lack of a suitable surrogate hosts. Nearest relative living giant sloth, sloth tree is too small compared to its ancestor. It may produce eggs capable of forming a giant sloth embryo, fetus but would quickly surpass in size the opportunity gestational surrogate mother.






























3. Megaloceros giganteus, or giant moose

Missing: approx. 7,700 years ago
DNA preserved: 60%
Match potential surrogate mother: 60%

Deer hunting enthusiasts would give anything to have the chance to chase through the woods this Pleistocene giant, who lived sometime in Europe. A typical male of the species Irish elk measure over two meters in height at the shoulder and have an opening horns up to four meters. It's more deer than moose, and his relative nearest deer today is much smaller, the two species separate evolution starting her about ten million years ago. The differences between the two species are hard enough trying to convert the genome of a giant moose in a living animal, healthy




























2. Castoroides ohioensis or giant beaver

Missing: approx. 10,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 40%
Match potential surrogate mother: 30%

There is already a serious controversy on the reintroduction of beavers used in some countries, so scientists are wondering what would create uproar bringing to life the giant beaver, 2.5 meters long throughout North America. However, they hope to pretty much optimism in obtinenrea a sequence of the genome of the giant rodent; one of the supporters of the project being Hendrik Poinar, a geneticist McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. If this succeeds, capybara, the largest rodent in life that is still half the mass beaver giant could be a surrogate mother right, although it is possible that the degree of relationship between the two species to be pretty reduced.


























1. Neanderthal and Neanderthal
Missing: around 25,000 years ago
DNA preserved: 20%
Match potential surrogate mother: 100%

A fragment of DNA sequence Neanderthal genome would be published even during the current year. "To have a reasonable quality genome, say comparable to that of a chimpanzee, it will take at least another two years of work," says Svante Paabo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany. While his team researcher hopes that the genome will provide resolutions unique about the differences between us humans and "summer" Our mystery, speculation was rampant that it could even serve to resurrect entire species of Neanderthal man . Given the town's ancestralitatea almost homo sapiens neanderthalensis and Homo, people would be excellent egg donors and surrogate ideal for potential embryos. However, while scientists of the Soviet Union once tried to create hybrid between man and ape today is hard to imagine that even the most enthusiastic researchers would venture into a territory so restrictive. "I find the idea resuscitation Neanderthal so ridiculous that any speculation regarding surrogacy seems superfluous," says Paabo. "At most, researchers might replace some human genes in organisms Neaderthalian experimental versions of a container, to investigate the effect of," said the researcher.






























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