Monday, November 21, 2016

Martin Luther versus Pope Leon X (1475 – 1521) and King Charles V (1500 - 1558)

Martin Luther photo: pinterest
Martin Luther (1483 - 1546) was a theologian, religious reformer, the founder of German Protestantism.

Leo X (1475 - 1521) was pope between 1513 and 1521.

Charles V (1500 - 1558) was the Roman-German emperor from 1519 until his abdication in 1556.

Wittenberg, October 31 1517. With his squat wooden houses, Wittenberg like a big village. Yet it is a capital. Together with Torgau, he shares the honor of being the residence of the Duke of Saxony, large elector.

On this day, the eve of the Feast of All Saints, animation reigns everywhere. Street cleaners clean the streets, people decorate their houses, leaving tapestries hang over windows that caught the flowers and leaves. At Wittenberg, November 1 is a double celebration: it celebrates the patron of the chapel of the castle.


Rendition of Luther posting his Ninety-Five Theses photo: pursuingveritas.com


Lunch time. A small group approaches the chapel door. A monk with race and black hood on his head, take some papers in one hand, another goes a clay pot. Once in front of the chapel, who take out a small clay bowl brush and smears little door, while the race monk sticks, one by one, paperwork that you hold in your hand.

Monk Martin Luther. Display texts are bomb that will explode Catholicism: "Out of love for truth and purpose to clarify the following theses will be held at Wittenberg under the presidency of the Reverend Father Martin Luther, hermit Augustine, art teacher, doctor and lecturer in Sacred Theology . Pray that those who, being absent, I could talk to him, be willing to do it in writing. In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. "Follow theses texts

With their display, Luther writes a letter to the Pope amid exposes his thesis. Also, Luther sent a copy of his more famous theologians. Two weeks later, the document was spread throughout Germany.


Raphael's Portrait of Leo X with cardinals Giulio de' Medici (later Pope Clement VII) and Luigi de' Rossi, his first cousins, (Uffizi gallery, Florence) photo: wikipedia.org


Three years and nine months would elapse between displaying theses and rupture with the Roman Church sanctioned by Luther's excommunication. But who caused this rift?


FIRST REACTIONS

Sale of indulgences

November 1st 1517. No one present to discuss theses at Wittenberg Luther proposed.


Johann Tetzel monk - Faces of the Reform photo: LutheranReformation.org


First reaction: a work of monk Tetzel - to whom was entrusted the preaching of indulgences - published at the end of that year entitled "Antiteze" burned in public Wittenberg students.

At the Vatican, Pope Leo X considers Luther's attitude a minor incident. Indulgences have encountered other difficulties, the institution has already been challenged by the clergy and laity in France, in Germany and elsewhere and yet never suffered anything, Pope thinks.



In early spring 1518, however, full of irritation Leon X reads a memo entitled "Resolution on the virtue of indulgences" which is exposed sordid practice. Signed Martin Luther. The author had the audacity to send text sovereign in person.Two weeks later Martin Luther is asked to come to Augsburg, where he assembled the Diet to explain before it. 


I required a triple statement: "Retract my mistakes. I will not fall back into them. I will not disturb the peace of the church. "

What says Luther?

- I want to follow the teachings of the Church, but I can not retract as long as I am not persuaded that my doctrines are contrary to Scripture.


John Eck vs Luther photo: reformation500
July 4 1519. Provoked by John Eck at Dominican oratorical contest, Luther explicitly denies the primacy of the Pope: "The Church has only one true head, Christ."








Excommunication

June 15th 1520. Pope threatens to excommunicate Luther. The reaction is tough reformer. Publish new texts that lead to rupture of Rome. He asks vehemently reform the Church through a national council, which shall set an agenda: discussing the celibacy of priests, pilgrimages, fewer secrets etc.


Martin Luther Excommunicated photo: theosource.com


December 10th 1520. Bull of excommunication, has become enforceable, it is burned in a cold, gray morning, in the midst of the University of Wittenberg. Students laugh and sing around the little bush.


TO THE KING
Emperor Charles V photo: wikipedia.org

In a few days an event occurs unexpectedly amazing. 

- The king wants to hear the Dieta from Worms. Here laissez-passer.

Permit signed Carol, it is on behalf of "reverend, lover and devotee Martin Luther". Emperor Charles V thinks a compromise.


- I want to see him and to listen to this monk, after that I will decide on the excommunication.

I can not and do not want to retract anything

The atmosphere in the packed hall, lit by torches smoldering, is oppressive. Luther will respond to the official Trier, Johan von Ecke, that will ask questions. Augustinian monk had to speak each sentence first in German, then Latin for king.


Meeting begins only six at night. Luther enters pale, sweaty, with a very modest in his black race, and appear before the auditor noble. To his own surprise, the first answers to the official data, voice sounded strong and clear. Equally clear are his demands: instead of condemning her thesis without discussion, to be shown in the light of Scripture, what are harmful. I suddenly severs official:

- Do not talk. Retract or not?


- As long as you're not going be convinced by arguments taken from the Bible, continue to defend my thesis because I do not believe in the Pope nor the councils who have failed so many times. My conscience is captive divine word. I can not and do not want to retract anything. God have his charge!

In the room sat a terrible silence, followed by murmurs. The meeting is raised in an atmosphere of great tension.

Exit, Luther sees the crowd coming to meet him. Almost involuntarily raised her arms in a kind of gesture of victory and the Germans cheer. Immediately, however, hear whistles; Spaniards are of the imperial suite. People around Luther call:

- You heard? You are no longer safe, your life will soon be in jeopardy. But we are with you, Fear neither the Pope nor the Emperor!

Soon, an imperial secretary announces that the judgment was confirmed. It excommunicated. In fact, it is banished from the empire. Where to go, where not to Wittenberg, the only refuge where yet hope to receive aid provided to arrive on time.


Maurice, Elector of Saxony photo: wikipedia.org


On the way to town on Elba, Luther Martin is kidnapped. Soon he finds that, by order of his patron, Elector of Saxony. Agree with all the nobility of Thuringia, Frederic devised this stratagem to avoid to hand himself in his vassal, according to legal provisions.

Reformation day
Martin Luther's 95 theses photo: refo500.nl

Reformation Day is a religious holiday hours on October 31 in remembrance of the Reformation celebration held particularly by Lutheran and Reformed Churches few communities. Is a national holiday in Slovenia (since the reform has contributed profoundly to its cultural development, although Slovenes are mainly Roman Catholic) and the following German states: Brandenburg, Macklenburg-Western Pomerania, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. Since 2008, is a national holiday in Chile.

On October 31, 1517, Martin Luther nailed a proposal Wittenberg church door in Germany to discuss the doctrine and practice of indulgences. This proposal is known commonly as The 95 Theses, which he thrust them through the doors of Castle Church. This gesture, however, was not an act of defiance or challenge as some perceive. Since the Church of the castle was exposed mainly traffic Wittenberg church door function as public notice board and, consequently, it was the place to display important announcements. Also, theses were written in Latin, the language of the church, not the national language. 

Even so, the event sparked controversy between Luther and the Pope on many of the practices and doctrines. When Luther and his followers were excommunicated in 1520, it formed Lutheranism. This would open the way to forming later Reformed and Anabaptist traditions.

In the Lutheran Church, Reformation Day is a celebration deemed inferior, and the official name is the Reformation Festival. Until the twentieth century, most churches in the Lutheran Reformation Day celebrated October 31, whatever day of the week that happened to be. Today, most Lutheran churches have changed the date of the festival, so be Sunday (called Reformation Sunday) on or before October 31 and moved All Saints Day on the Sunday on or after November 1.

The liturgical color of the day is red, representing the Holy Spirit and martyrs of the Christian Church. Luther's hymn, God's strong city is traditionally sung on this day. Typically, Lutherans stand during the anthem, hymn in memory usage in the religious wars of the sixteenth century. It is also the Lutheran tradition in some schools, children have scenes with Reformation Day or shows where to play scenes from the life of Martin Luther.


Reformation Day that coincides with Halloween may not be pure coincidence. Halloween, the eve of All Saints, would have been a great day for Luther to display their 95 theses against indulgences, since the church in the castle would be open All Saints Day just for people to see a large collection of relics. The sight of these relics had promised a reduction of time spent in purgatory en similar to the purchase of indulgences. Luther was shrewd choice by October 31 for displaying his thesis.



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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Wikipedia . Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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