Thursday, July 21, 2016

Battle of Cajamarca and horses who conquered an empire

Year of Our Lord 1532. An expeditionary corps composed of adventurers and wicked, led by the infamous Francisco Pizarro crosses the Amazon forest and swamps, heading for the biggest glutton empire in South America. Along with the no 200 Spaniards, 62 horses were fixed. These horses have literally made history: they contributed to winning a battle, and then to conquer an empire. Perhaps the best example of the clash of civilizations, the primate of myth over reason and the prelude to genocide, the Battle of Cajamarca is a bloody and dramatic moment in the history of all mankind.

After artists have come conquistadors

After the explosion triggered by the phenomenon of the Renaissance in the arts, sciences, culture in general, western Europe will fall back into the chaos of greed, of religious fanaticism, cruelty without limits and destruction irrational everything that is not the frame with religious precepts and moral then governed the western part of the Old Continent.

What it is? About nothing but about the period known as the somewhat pompous "Age of Great Geographical Discoveries."
Well, besides the impetus and success of memorable adventures, like discovering the Americas and circumnavigate the Earth for the first time, the great geographical discoveries have involved mass murder of millions of native Americans and the destruction of civilizations extremely interesting and original.

One of the most remarkable episodes of aggression conquistadors was at the Battle of Cajamarca, located place today within the borders of Peru, historical and cultural heir of the deceased Inca Empire. The confrontation was actually one of those decisive points, turning even the course of history because its result depended much of the following events for the South American continent.

Picture a typical Spanish conquistador

Very briefly, the Spaniards have won a huge battle, conquering virtually an entire world, enriching beyond expectations and imaginings, with minimal losses.

And it was due to a humble creature, abused for millennia wars - namely the horse - and the religious beliefs of a peculiar people who have to pay cruelly price technological gap which is compared to his attackers and the price of isolation and its originality.

Conducting facts is not only an important page in human history, but also a perfect illustration of the famous ancient dictum "Homo homini lupus est".

King and son Porcari

Dramatic confrontation between two hostile forces commanders is even more interesting since we can not ignore the nature, history and personalities of the two adversaries.

For example, we have the Atahualpa, the last emperor of the Inca Empire Pool, the largest, most powerful and richest state gold from the New World at the time. Then, the Incas ruled an immense territory that stretched from Ecuador State's territory by the coasts of Argentina and Peru, so lush and impenetrable Amazon. State giant population was estimated by historians at about 10 million souls - an impressive figure at the time. Even before the conquistadors led by Pizarro, had just ended a civil war won by Atahualpa, and just enjoy the victory victorious leader in the city of Cajamarca, surrounded by an army of 80,000 warriors.

On the other hand, we have a character unscrupulous, uneducated, illiterate, cruel, fanatic religious, but brave and determined in achieving their goals at any cost, as only some of the people with such attributes can be.

Francisco Pizarro was born in Trujillo, Spain, and was the illegitimate son of Gonzalo Pizarro, a former infantry colonel got hit by poverty and Porcari fair. His mother, Francisca Gonzales, was a woman of the people, by the lowness. The future conqueror of the Inca Empire alone was actually good cousin's Hernando Cortez, the conqueror of the Aztec Empire none other than, another great civilization pre-Columbian. This seems to be the destruction of civilization was a family clan Cortez, Pizarro ...

Thus, the adventurer who swore Royal Court in Madrid that he would return full of gold or die in unknown was, at that time, 150 miles from the ocean in full territory Inca as notaseră conquistadors in their chronicles.

Epochal confrontation from Cajarmarca was climaxed a period of several months tense espionage and mutual discussions between Pizarro and the Inca rulers. Atahualpa, king of the Inca god status, not afraid at the time of the bizarre handful of people appeared from nowhere in his empire. Encamped in the hills of Cajamarca, its huge army have a particular moral, as just crushed led forces Huascar, Atahualpa's stepbrother.

Great Inca Atahualpa fourteenth -al (1497-1533)

Unlike its counterpart, the second emperor Montezuma, the Aztec supreme leader, Atahualpa was not afraid at all smelly mob of soldiers bizarre, strangely dressed and brandished weapons strange and illogical for the mind of an Inca.

The leader of the Incas knew these strange soldiers were not gods, not even their representatives, as he had reported spies her that he had seen the Spaniards when they were wounded, died or had their needs just like any other human being . In fact, according to information from the Spanish chronicles, it seems that even Atahualpa intended to recruit some conquistadors among its military and equip people with horses and Spanish muskets. Only that the Incas had never seen horses of all time

Battle angels and horses

Unoriginal, Pizzaro and called officers to devise a battle plan inspired maneuvers his cousin in Mexico. Porcari son play hard. Aware of the deified leader status enjoyed by Atahualpa, Pizarro intended neither more nor less than to capture him alive king-god and force a surrender of his armies.

As this was possible only through a ruse of huge proportions, Pizarro managed to trick the Atahualpa armies to leave and come into the camp alone Spanish.

However, conquistadors others were not as confident in the plan's crazy Pizzaro, most of them objected vehemently and here is how to block the initiative.

According to their chronicles, the night before his trap Pizzaro frightened by the crowd of camp fires Inca, the Spaniards' urinated in their pants, horror ".

But in its territory, Atahualpa showed an excess of confidence which proved fatal.
Citadel of Cuzco

Inca King was close to the Spanish fortifications, accompanied by a suite of subjects. Cautious and knowledge of religious beliefs and superstitions Incas, conquistadors relied on one winning card. In a note typical arrogance and aggressiveness conquistadors priest gang of adventurers, Vincente de Valverde, approached the Inca king and handed him a Bible and ordered him to forsake his gods to accept Catholicism as a faith and Carlos V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, as suzerain. According to the chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega, the supreme Inca was interested at first instance by proposals arrogant priest, but the incident was triggered when he put his hand on the Bible. Because Atahualpa had not seen a book in his life and therefore he could not open it and look into it, the Incas held the Bible in his hands a few minutes after that, bored, threw it away.

And then, things have precipitated.

In a fit of rage crazy priest Valverde started screaming, 

"Oh, you see, Spaniards, this arrogant pigs? How he threw down the word of God? I therefore absolve from all sin, cut them pagans defile"

At the signal given by the priest, the Spaniards began firing with archebuzele Inca imperial suite. The effect was devastating, as amplified by the appearance of 62 riders.

This was the turning point of confrontation. In North and South America before the arrival of the conquistadors, there were no horses, no pre-Columbian civilizations knew this animal. So 7,000 Incas had never seen such a creature in their lives. They fled in terror, thinking that it is about an animal of the gods, preferring to abandon their king.

First batch of Pizzaro targeted group composed of Atahualpa and his army commanders. Atahualpa was captured incredibly easy, in the midst of his men, who were both terrified and bewildered at the sight of horses. 

While his men were seized by the frenzy of slaughter Incas, who did not even dare to raise their hands, Pizarro captured Atahualpa him to live in his litter. Inca mentioned that he was drunk, and several Spaniards tried to kill him, the great Inca was saved at the last moment even a gesture of Pizzaro who stretched out a hand to stop instantly shot a fellow sword. Wounded in the arm, but the Incas captured, shot Pizzaro gave his life.

106 infantry, 62 riders, 12 Gunsmiths and 4 gunners Spanish înfrânseseră suite just over 7,000 men of Atahualpa. 2000 Incas had been killed, the remaining 5,000 were taken prisoner. The Spaniards had only one injured in the person of Pizarro cut involuntary arm of one of the people subordinated to the incident related to capturing charged.

The rest was history: their supreme leader captured, the Incas were taught, along with their incredible riches.

On 17 November 1532 the Spaniards conquered riding huge military camp of more than 80,000 warriors, incapable of any reaction as long as they knew their king prisoner. The Spaniards were ecstatic. Military camp was full of gold, silver and emeralds, which the Incas valued not hardly compared to the greedy Europeans.
The memorial house where Pizarro was born. Today's national museum and tourist attraction Spain

Noting greed and conquistadors attraction to precious metals and gems, Atahualpa has negotiated liberty Pizzaro, offering him in exchange for his release, a huge amount of gold.
Big mistake I made, because we shall see how he kept his promise son bullshit.

In exchange for his freedom, Inca king has offered to fill a room with gold Spaniard length of 6.7 meters, width of 5, 2 meters and height of 2, 4 meters.

Inca has kept the promise, the room is filled with gold by his subjects within two months.

However, Spanish greedy not bear to release him, hoping perhaps more gold. After several months of captivity, Pizzaro feared a possible attack under the command of captain Ruminahui Incas. Consequently, the conquistador framed a show trial in which accuses Inca idolatry, rebellion against the Spaniards and killing his own brother, Huascar. Villainous character threatens the Inca still burning at the stake, a death that terrifies him Atahualpa, because according to Inca beliefs, the soul could not go to the afterlife if his body is burned. The tragic farce comes priest Valverde, who dreamed only conversions tape. Catholic cardinal intervenes, saying to Atahualpa that if is baptized in the Roman Catholic worship, would be strangled and his soul will save so (!). Cornered, Atahualpa decide to convert, given the name Juan Santos Atahualpa baptism.

The assassination of Atahualpa

To him Pizzaro quell the sadistic priest Valverde decided to burn at the stake just garments charged. Immediately after baptism into the Catholic faith, Atahualpa is strangled with a rope. The youngest of his wives Atahualpa, Cuxirimay Ocllo, aged only 10 years, had been held in captivity along with Inca. Pizzaro had already put eyes on it, so, after the girl reaches 15 years and is baptized Catholic, receiving the name Dona Angelina son Porcari, now riding high (literally and figuratively) and make her mistress and has the her two sons, Juan and Francisco baptized.

Pizzaro died in 1541 in the city of Lima, which would become the capital of Peru later

As horses without which the Spaniards had not conquered so easily as the richest pre-Columbian empire, chronicles the conquistadors did not deign to mention anything. Not surprisingly is not it?

Beautiful Andalusian horses, whose ancestors conquered the Inca Empire TLS their Spanish masters

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The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Descopera . Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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