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Tuesday, December 27, 2016

Astronomer who rewrote the history of the Universe. He originally wanted to be a priest. Later, his mother had suffered from Church

The Great Comet of 1577, which Kepler witnessed as a child, attracted the attention of astronomers across Europe photo: wikipedia
At December 27, 1571 was born Johannes Kepler, astronomer and astrologer, who discovered that the Earth and the planets move around the sun in an elliptical orbit (d. November 15, 1630)

Kepler was born on December 27, 1571 in Weil der Stadt, Württemberg, Germany, and studied since 1591 theology at the University of Tübingen. One of his teachers was Michael Maestlin, defender of the heliocentric theory of Copernicus. Kepler wanted to be a priest, a Protestant, but finally, with great penchant for math function supports 1594 teacher of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Graz, Austria. Here are working on a complex geometrical hypotheses aimed at explaining the remoteness of the orbits of the five planets known at that time (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn).

Kepler was a German mathematician and optician. photo: wikipedia

Kepler believes that the sun exerts a force that decreases in proportion to the removal of a planet: "Planets move accordingly on an elliptical path, the center of which is the sun." Thus states the first law of planetary motion (see Kepler's Laws), published in "Mysterium Cosmographicum" ( "The Mystery of cosmic world", 1596).

In April 1597, Kepler married Barbara Mühlek. Due to pressure from the Catholic Counter-Reformation, Kepler is forced to leave Graz and in 1600 accepted the offer to work in Prague as an assistant to Tycho Brahe, the astronomer court Emperor Rudolf II.

The qualities of Tycho Brahe's observatory are now complemented with exceptional knowledge of mathematics of Kepler. After the death of Brahe in 1601, Kepler became his successor as imperial mathematician and astronomer. 

Kepler observed 1604 "Supernova 1604" and published his observations in his "De Stella Nova in Serpentarii Pede" ( "About a new star in the constellation foot serpent"). In "Astronomia Nova" ( "New Astronomy", 1609) publishes research results on the ellipse Mars and the second law states: "The planet is closer to the sun, the faster it moves." 

Remnant of Kepler's Supernova SN 1604 photo: wikipedia

In 1612 Kepler is set at Linz in Austria, where his work appears "Harmonices Mundi" ( "Harmony of the World", 1619). In the last chapter of this book, based on observations and calculations, sets out the third law of planetary motion: "The square of time of revolution is proportional to the third power of the average distance between a planet and the sun."

In the years 1615-1620 Kepler had to defend his mother, who was accused of witchcraft. He eventually managed to obtain her release, but without being able to prevent the torture was subject, following which she died a year later. Kepler lived in an era of intolerance, struggles between Catholics and Protestants during the Thirty Years' War, was forced repeatedly to flee to escape persecution, although his attempts to remain neutral.

His last major work, published in his lifetime yet is Tabulae Rudolfinae (1627), which contains tables that describe the movements of the planets. It will be the basis for any astronomical for the next 200 years. In his theory of gravitation forces, Isaac Newton relied heavily on Kepler's observations.

Apart works of astronomy, Kepler described a process for determining the volumes on which will develop integral calculus. He also studied symmetry of snowflakes and calculated the natural forces involved in the growth and geometric structures that will be applied in the study of crystallography. He worked in the field of optics, which to remember his invention called "Kepler's telescope."

Johannes Kepler died on November 15, 1630 in Regensburg, Germany, aged 59 years. In his memory, the University of Linz called "Johannes Kepler Universität,".

Invenit Mundo presents major historical significance of the day December 27:

1585 - He died Pierre de Ronsard, the French poet, the main representative of the Pleiades (sixteenth-century French literary school) ( "Ode", "Hymns") (b. September 11, 1524)

1717 - was born Pope Pius VI (d. 1799)

1784 - peasant revolt led by Horea, Closca and Crisan, broke out November 2nd. 1784. Horea and Closca are trapped in the forest in the mountains Scoruşet Gilău, then imprisoned at Alba-Iulia

1806 - Constantine Ypsilanti returns to Bucharest. He organizes an army intended to enable the realization of his plan, establishing a kingdom of Dacia format Moldovan and Romanian Country Serbia

1816 - Held at the initiative of Gheorghe Asachi Iasi first theater performance in Romanian: "Mirtil and Hloe" pastoral in one act

1822 - Louis Pasteur was born chemist and biologist, member of the French Academy; He discovered the nature of infectious diseases of humans and animals and rabies vaccine (applied for the first time in 1885), thereby laying the foundations of immunology; established conservation beer pasteurisation method (d. September 28, 1895)

1831 - Charles Darwin embarked on his historic journey aboard the HMS Beagle royal

1832 - was born Pavel Mikhailovich Tretyakov, Russian critic and humorist, founder of the art gallery that bears his name

1896 - He was born American novelist Louis Bromfield (d. March 18, 1956)

1897 - VIANU Tudor was born, poet, philosopher and esthetician Romanian member of the Romanian Academy; He was director general of the National Commission for UNESCO director general of the Romanian Academy Library, Director of the National Theatre in Bucharest; wrote aesthetic and stylistic studies, memoirs, analyzed in terms of aesthetics Romanian literary phenomenon and universal ( "Art and beauty," "Art Romanian prose writers") (d. May 21, 1964)

1901 - Marlene Dietrich was born, legendary figure of cinema, film actress, theater, music hall, vaudeville singer (movies: "Blue Angel", "stigma of evil") (d. May 6, 1992)

1909 - D.A. Sturdza, due to sickness, withdraws from the party and the leadership of the PNL; I.I.C. Brătianu was appointed prime minister

1925 - He died Sergei Aleksandrovich Yesenin, Russian poet, one of the most sensitive of the village evocators Russian (committed suicide) (n.1895)

1945 - Establishment of the World Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as a result of the UN Monetary and Financial Conference in Bretton Woods (1 to 12 July 1945). Romania became a member of the two financial institutions to December 15, 1972

1977 - A Ciucurencu Alexander died, painter, member of the Romanian Academy; In 2003, UNESCO included in the calendar of cultural anniversaries and name Alexander Ciucurencu, marking 100 years since the birth of the painter (b. September 27, 1903)

1978 - In Spain establishes democracy after 40 years of dictatorship

1989 - In the first plenary NSFC was adopted Decree-Law no. 2 on the establishment, organization and functioning of NSFC and territorial councils of the NSF; also he was elected Executive Office of NSFC: President - Ion Iliescu; First Deputy Chairman - Dumitru Mazilu; Vice - Cazimir Ionescu, Karoly Kiraly; Secretary - Dan Martian; members - Teodoriu Bogdan, Vasile Neacsa, Silviu Brucan Manole Gheorghe Ion Caramitru, Nicolae Radu

1991 - It was open to the public, the Cotroceni National Museum, established on July 10, 1991

1995 - The Bosnian government army and Bosnian Serb forces evacuated the key positions on the front lines around Sarajevo

1998 - The European Commission approved the creation of a common bank, based in Vienna, by the third private bank German Dresdner Bank and National Bank of Paris (BNP), which aims to administer the activities of the two institutions in Europe East

2004 - Viktor Yushchenko has claimed victory in the presidential elections in Ukraine

2006 - Finished the former US president Gerald Ford life. He was the only president who was directly elected for the posts of president and vice president of the United States.

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