Experts have developed the smallest machine in the world. 2016 Nobel laureates were honored for developing molecular machines that are currently thousands of times thinner than a human hair.
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has decided to award the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2016 by Jean-Perre Sauvage, University of Strasbourg, France, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA, and Bernard L. Feringa at the University of Groningen, Netherlands.
|Jean-Perre Sauvage, University of Strasbourg, France, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart at Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA, and Bernard L. Feringa at the University of Groningen, Netherlands.|
Other researchers polymer molecular motors connected to form a net. When molecular motors are exposed to light, the net tightening in a bundle. If researchers will discover a light recovery technique could develop a new type of battery.
Computational technology development demonstrates how miniaturization technology (or nanotechnology) can lead to a revolution. Nobel laureates in Chemistry 2016 have pushed so miniaturized machines and chemistry to a new dimension, says the press release published on the official website of the prestigious Nobel prizes.
The first step in designing a molecular machines was made by Jean-Pierre Sauvage in 1983, when he managed to link two ring-shaped molecules together to form a chain called "chain". Normally, the molecules are linked by strong covalent bonds, which atoms share electrons. Instead chain were connected by a mechanical link freer. A machine able to perform a task should be composed of parts that can move relative to each other. The two rings joined fulfilled this requirement exactly.
The second step was taken by Fraser Stoddart in 1991, when he developed a "rotaxane" [ "rotaxane" - an architecture molecular synchronized mechanically composed of a molecule shaped like a dumbbell that is threaded into a macrocycle molecular (a macrocycle is formed chains of 8 or more molecules, or 12 or more molecules, for example the drugs in series of macrolides, according to literature - No]. He threaded a ring molecular on a shaft molecular thin and proved that ring can move around the axis. Among the things he developed based on "rotaxane" are: a molecular elevator, a molecular muscles and a computer chip at the molecular level.
Bernard Feringa was the first person who developed a molecular motor; in 1999, he managed to make a molecular rotor blade to continuously rotate in the same direction. Using molecular motors, it has turned a glass cylinder, which is 10,000 times higher than the engine and also designed a nanomachines.
2016 Chemistry Nobel Prize laureates have brought stalemate equilibrium molecular systems causing them to move in a controlled manner. In terms of development, molecular motor is the same level that was the electric motor in the 1830s, when engineers have developed various levers and wheels, without knowing that these inventions will lead to the production of electric trains, washing machines, the fans and the machines that process food. Nanomachines (molecular machines) will most likely be used in developing new materials, sensors and energy storage systems.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry this year was given to researchers in recognition of their success in linking molecules to design anything from a car engine at small scale muscle.
"They have mastered the movements of control molecular scale," according to Olof Ramstrom, the Nobel Committee.
Reacting to the announcement of the prize Professor Feringa said: "I do not know what to say, I'm shocked. And my second reaction was: I'm a little nervous."
Jean-Pierre Sauvage was born in 1944 in Paris, France. He obtained a doctorate in 1971 from the University of Strasbourg. Professor emeritus at the University of Strasbourg and emeritus director of research at the National Centre for Scientific Research in France.
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart was born in 1942 in Edinburgh, UK. He obtained a doctorate in 1966 from the University of Edinburgh. Part of the Administration Council of Teachers of Chemistry in Northwestern University, Evanston, USA.Bernard L. Feringa was born in 1951 in Barger-Compascuum, Netherlands. He has obtained a doctorate in 1978 from the University of Groningen, Netherlands. Is a professor in organic chemistry at the University of Groningen, Netherlands.
Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir Bernard J Fraser Stoddart and L Feringa will share the prize of 8 million Swedish kronor (about 850,000 euros) for the design and synthesis of molecular-scale machines.
Winners will receive one gold medal. On Medal in Chemistry Nobel laureates in Physics and it is Nature, in the form of a goddess, like Isis, coming out of the clouds and has hands horn of plenty, and the veil which covers the face austere genius is supported by Science.
On the medal is inscribed a quote from Virgil, Aeneid inspired: Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes (Inventions enrich life which art adorns a), and below is engraved the name of the laureate. The design belongs to Erik Lindberg.
Nobel diploma and is a unique work of art created by the most famous artists and calligraphers Swedes and Norwegians.
In 2015, Swedish researchers Tomas Lindahl, American and Turkish-American Paul Modrich Aziz Sancar were rewarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their studies about the cellular mechanisms of DNA repair, according to the Nobel Committee motivation.
Chemistry was the importance of science in their work of Alfred Nobel, chemist, inventor and industrialist with businesses in the production of weapons. Putting his inventions and the whole industrial process from its factories were based on knowledge of chemistry and, therefore, the chemistry was the second field of the awards after physics, said the Nobel in his will.
From 1901 to 2014, there were 172 winners of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry 106 reward being awarded in the years 1916, 1917, 1919, 1924, 1933, 1940, 1941, and 1942.
Only four women have received this award: 1911 - Marie Curie (who Aprime Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903) 1935 - Irène Joliot-Curie (daughter of Marie Curie and the wife of Frédéric Joliot) 1964 - Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 2009 - Ada Yonath.
Frederick Sanger received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry twice (1958 and 1980).
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