David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz winners of 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for discoveries,, theoretical topological phase transitions and topographic phases of matter ''.
Nobel Prize winners in 2016 they opened a new gate in the different states of matter. Using advanced mathematical methods, they studied the unusual phases or states of matter, such as superconductors, magnetic superfluidele strata. Thanks to their work, researchers can explore unusual phases of matter.
Kosterlitz and Thouless have studied the phenomenon that occurs in a flat world surfaces or extremely thin layers inside that can be considered two-dimensional compared to the three-dimensional (length, width and height), which are generally easier to describe. Also, Haidan studied the matter that is formed in the form of yarn, so thin as can be regarded as one-dimensional.
Their discovery has provided important information regarding theoretical understanding of the mysteries of matter, offering new perspectives on the development of innovative materials.
Last year, the Nobel Prize for Physics has been awarded to researchers Takaaki Kajita Japanese and Canadian Arthur B. McDonald for their significant contributions regarding experiments showed that neutrinos change their identities, metamorphosis implies that they have mass .
Since 1901, the prize for Physics was awarded 109 times and were 201 winners, including the only two women: Marie Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer. 47 times the prize was awarded to a single winner. However, John Bardeen received the Nobel Physics twice.
The youngest of the laureates was Noben Lawrence Bragg, who was 25 when he received the Nobel Prize in Physics with his father in 1915. The oldest winner is David Raymond Jr., who was 88 years old when he received the prize for physics in 2002.
Nobel season began Monday, when Japanese researcher Yoshinori Ohsumi was awarded the prize for medicine in 2016 for discovering the mechanism of autophagy. Errors in these genes can cause a range of diseases, and these findings help explain the causes of diseases like cancer or Parkinson's disease.
2015 Nobel season will continue on Wednesday with chemistry award. Thursday will be announced the winner of the Nobel Prize for literature.
Nobel Peace Prize winner - awarded only by Norway, according to the desire of the founder of the prestigious awards, Alfred Nobel - will be announced Friday. Nobel Prize for economics will be presented Monday, October 12th.
The laureates will receive a gold medal and a prize of 8 million Swedish kronor (about 850,000 euros) which can be split between up to three winners in each category.
Physics laureates receive a medal that represents Nature in the form of a goddess, like Isis, coming out of the clouds and has hands horn of plenty, and the veil which covers the face austere genius is supported by Science.
On the medal is inscribed a quote from Virgil, Aeneid inspired: Inventas vitam juvat excoluisse per artes (Inventions enrich life which art adorns a), and below is engraved the name of the laureate. The design belongs to Erik Lindberg.
Nobel laureates will receive their awards during a formal ceremony in Stockholm and Oslo on December 10, the day that commemorates the death of prize founder Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896.
Name nominees and other information about them or about the selection process can not be made public for 50 years.
Nobel Prizes are awarded since 1901, except for the economy, established in 1968 by the Swedish Central Bank to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the founding of this institution. The awards were created after the death of Alfred Nobel weld engineer (1833 - 1896), inventor of dynamite, in his will according to his will.
Physics was the first area of the awards mentioned in the will of Alfred Nobel, the scholar and businessman Swedish ruled that the income of his immense fortune to be offered each year "in the form of prizes to those who, in the previous year, brought the greatest service to humanity ".
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