Yoshinori Ohsumi was awarded for cell biological analysis of how autophagy works - how cells repair themselves and detoxifies the body.
Yoshinori Ohsumi was born in 1945 in Fukuoka, Japan. Since 2009 is a professor at Tokyo Institute of Technology, according to the Nobel Committee.
Aged 71 years, the Japanese professor Yoshinori Ohsumi began to investigate autophagy mechanism 26 years ago, the University of Tokyo. He used a bakery yeast to identify genes essential for autophagy mechanism. His experiments were deemed "brilliant" by the Nobel committee in Stockholm, which has award-winning months.
By Professor Yoshinori Ohsumi research was to understand how the body responds to infection or adapts to starvation. A number of mutations in genes studied it are found in various forms of cancer and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's. Autophagic mechanism first described by Professor Ohsumi, refers to the ability of cells to destroy their own content which then transports it some blistering form of bags up in a compartment recycling lysosomes, where they destroy material cell.
Autophagy is known for the past five decades, but its fundamental importance in physiology and medicine was recognized only with Yoshinori Ohsumi's research in the 1990s.
By autophagic processes including toxins and cleanses the body cells recycle damaged components. Cell membrane creates hunting remnants of dead cells, diseased or worn and the molecules used for energy or to restore other cells.
Disruption of autophagy process were related to Parkinson's disease, type 2 diabetuld's, cancer and other disorders that occur with aging. Mutations in the genes can cause autophagic genetic diseases. Intensive research currently under way to develop drugs that trigger autophagy process in various diseases.
Autophagic word comes from two Greek words meaning "self-devouring".
Laureate announcement is made on the same day that, of all the nominees, he is elected by the institution awarding the prize, the Nobel Committees suggestion domain.
Last year, the Nobel Medicine Prize was won by William C. Campbell (Ireland) and Satoshi Omura (Japan) for discoveries concerning a new therapy against infections caused by roundworms, while Tu Youyou (China) was awarded for discoveries her on a new therapy against malaria.
Since 1901 were 210 winners, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by 106, except for the years: 1915, 1916, 1917, 1918, 1921, 1925, 1940, 1941 and 1942. According to Foundation status Nobel prize it is not granted in any of the nominated works and is not considered likely to benefit humanity.
The youngest winner so far was Frederick G. Banting Canadian doctor considered along with American physiologist Charles Best, the discoverer of insulin and that was 32 years old when he received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1923.
The oldest laureate was Peyton Rous of which was 87 years old when I was awarded the prize for discoveries made in oncovirusurilor in 1996.
2015 Nobel season will continue on Tuesday, with the Nobel Prize for Physics.
Wednesday will be awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, and Thursday will be announced Nobel literature.
Nobel Peace Prize winner - awarded only by Norway, according to the desire of the founder of the prestigious awards, Alfred Nobel - will be announced Friday.
Nobel Prize for economics will be presented Monday, October 10th.
The laureate will receive a gold medal and a prize of 8 million Swedish kronor (about 850,000 euros).
Nobel laureates will receive their awards during a formal ceremony in Stockholm and Oslo on December 10, the day that commemorates the death of prize founder Alfred Nobel, who died in 1896.
Nobel Prizes are awarded since 1901, except for the economy, established in 1968 by the Swedish Central Bank to commemorate the 300th anniversary of the founding of this institution. The awards were created after the death of Alfred Nobel weld engineer (1833 - 1896), inventor of dynamite, in his will according to his will.
Name nominees and other information about them or about the selection process can not be made public for 50 years.
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